The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

Ammonia

RTECS #: BO0875000

CAS #: 7664-41-7


UPDATE: November 2004

MW: 17.04

MF: H3N



NOTE:


TABLE OF CONTENTS:

  1. SYNONYMS:

  2. MUTATION DATA:

  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:

  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:

  6. REVIEWS:

  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

  10. REFERENCES:


SYNONYMS:

  1. AM - Fol

  2. Ammonia (ACGIH:OSHA)

  3. Ammonia anhydrous

  4. Ammoniac (French)

  5. Ammonia gas

  6. Amoniak (Polish)

  1. R 717

  2. Spirit of hartshorn

  3. Ammoniaca (Italian)

  4. Ammoniak (German)

  5. Nitro - sil



SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM

DOSE


EFFECT

REFERENCE

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R



MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST

ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE

DOSE

REFERENCE

cytogenetic analysis

inhalation
rat

19,800 g/m3/16 week

BZARAZ 27(6),102,1974

mutation in microorganisms

Escherichia coli

1,500 ppm/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step)

AMNTA4 85,119,1951



REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM

DOSE


EFFECT

REFERENCE

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R



TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM

DOSE


EFFECT

REFERENCE

oral
rat

lowest published toxic dose: 1,680 mg/kg/24 week- continuous

Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

CALEDQ 65,15,1992



ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM

DOSE


EFFECT

REFERENCE

inhalation
cat

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1 hour

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement

JIHTAB 26,29,1944

inhalation
cat

lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
guinea pig

lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm

Olfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

AGGHAR 13,528,1955

inhalation
human

lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/5 minute

N/R

TABIA2 3,231,1933

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/8 hour

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 mg/m3

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
human

lowest published lethal concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/30 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)

lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/5 minute

N/R

AEPPAE 138,65,1928

inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)

lowest published toxic concentration: 3,500 mg/m3/90 minute

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
mouse

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,230 ppm/1 hour

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

FEPRA7 41,1568,1982

inhalation
mouse

lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2 hour

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
mouse

lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/2 hour

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
mouse

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,600 mg/m3/2 hour

N/R

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
rat

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,000 ppm/4 hour

N/R

34ZIAG -,607,1969

inhalation
rat

lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
rat

lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/4 hour

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

VCVN5* -,11,1993

inhalation
rat

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 18,600 mg/m3/5 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
rat

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7,040 mg/m3/30 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,12,1993

inhalation
rabbit

lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1 hour

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement

JIHTAB 26,29,1944

inhalation
rabbit

lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

VCVN5* -,11,1993

oral
man

lowest published toxic dose: 15 L/kg

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus

AJEMEN 3,320,1985

skin
rat

lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112,000 mg/m3/15 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,14,1993

skin
rat

lethal dose (50 percent kill): 71,900 mg/m3/30 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,14,1993

skin
rat

lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,840 mg/m3/60 minute

N/R

VCVN5* -,14,1993

unreported route
man

lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kg

N/R

85DCAI 2,73,1970



OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM

DOSE


EFFECT

REFERENCE

inhalation
dog

lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent

Eye: Lacrimation

TXAPA9 16,646,1970

inhalation
guinea pig

lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

TXAPA9 16,646,1970

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 6 mg/m3/7 hour/17 week- intermittent

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

VCVN5* -,13,1989

inhalation
human

lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent

Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

VCVN5* -,14,1989

inhalation
mouse

lowest published toxic concentration: 711 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

JJATDK 15,207,1995

inhalation
pig

lowest published toxic concentration: 145 ppm/5 week- continuous

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

JANSAG 28,844,1969

inhalation
pig

lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6 day- continuous

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

AJVRAH 55,1335,1994

inhalation
rat

lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)

PHTOEH 64,244,1989

inhalation
rat

lowest published toxic concentration: 455 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

TXAPA9 16,646,1970

inhalation
rat

lowest published toxic concentration: 960 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent

Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

GISAAA 50(5),90,1985

inhalation
rabbit

lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent

Eye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects

TXAPA9 16,646,1970

oral
rat

lowest published toxic dose: 173 mg/kg/4 week- continuous

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

DDSCDJ 36,33,1991



REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION

STANDARD


REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value

time-weighted average 25 ppm

DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value

short term exposure limit 35 ppm

DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003

TOXICOLOGY REVIEW


NTIS** AD-A094-501



STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION

STANDARD


REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF

PESTICIDES: Active registration

RBREV* -,352,1998

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3)

DTLVS* 3,11,1971

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)

8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)

CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)

8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)

CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)

8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)

CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)

8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)

CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994

Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm, JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA

MAK 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM

time-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 40 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE

VME 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), VLE 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY

MAK 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS

MAC-TGG 14 mg/m3, 2003

Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN

Occupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES

time-weighted average 50 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND

MAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 27 mg/m3, JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA

time-weighted average 25 ppm, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN

NGV 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), TGV 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND

MAK- week 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), KZG- week 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), JAN1999

Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND

time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY

time-weighted average 25 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993

Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM

time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (25 mg/m3), SEP2000

Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

short term exposure limit 35 ppm

Occupational Exposure Limit IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
short term exposure limit 35 ppm



NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION

STANDARD or SURVEY


REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO AMMONIA-air

10 hour time-weighted average 25 ppm;
short term exposure limit 35 ppm

NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 05250;
Number of Industries 363;
Total Number of Facilities 115,139;
Number of Occupations 198;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,168,429

National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983

National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 05250;
Number of Industries 270;
Total Number of Facilities 42,116;
Number of Occupations 174;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 805,962;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 287,974



STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION


REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180315/AS)

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY

EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies

On EPA IRIS database

EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001

NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ammonia, 6015

NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Ammoinia by IC, 6016

OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-164

OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-188



REFERENCES:

CODEN


REFERENCE

34ZIAG

"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969

85DCAI

"Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970

AEPPAE

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.

AGGHAR

Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-18, 1930-61. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.

AJEMEN

American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-

AJVRAH

American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-

AMNTA4

American Naturalist. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1867-

BZARAZ

Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii. Biological Journal of Armenia. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.19- 1966-

CALEDQ

Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-

CFRGBR

Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)

DDSCDJ

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.24- 1979-

DTLVS*

The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996

FEPRA7

Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.

GISAAA

Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-

JANSAG

Journal of Animal Science. (American Soc. of Animal Science, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1942-

JIHTAB

Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.

JJATDK

JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-

NIOSH*

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.

NTIS**

National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.

PHTOEH

Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-

RBREV*

Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998

TABIA2

Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.

TXAPA9

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-

VCVN5*

"Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.


Top 50 chemical production: 35.95 billions lbs in 1992, 34.33 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (FERTILIZER MANUFACTURE), SRC, 3/80

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (HAIRDRESSING and BARBERS), SRC, 6/80

NIOSH PROFILE (INCINERATION), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PULP AND PAPER MILLS), SRI, 2/77

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data

ALT CAS #: 8007-57-6
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